The word “evolution” here is taken simply in the sense of moving forward in time, with no qualitative connotation of improvement or deterioration.
In the scheme of human activity, the inputs are:
The outputs are:
In between the inputs and the outputs, of course, is the exploitation process.
So, to understand the variations in wealth and pollution and to be able to predict the wealth humans will create in the future and how much pollution that will cause, two parameters need to be adjusted.
This is valid for the next few decades, the processing of natural resources allows to feed an ever increasing population while these resources are decreasing. In the long term, the demography will be proportional to the creation of wealth (the ability to meet nutritional needs) and will therefore become an output.